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Forge welding processes are used to form permanent joints in metals. There are four main techniques: rotary friction welding (RFW), linear friction welding (LFW), orbital friction welding (OFW) and friction stir welding (FSW). RFW, LFW and OFW operations weld materials with frictional heat generated by rubbing the joint interface together. The joint plasticises and axial pressure is applied, forcing the materials to coalesce. FSW is a recent development. In this case the weld is formed by a rotating tool, which progresses along the join mixing the material at the interface.